www.AmericanAtlantis.com - American Atlantis Research

Thursday, December 31, 2099

American Atlantis Research

Edward Alexander
Researcher & founder of AAR


Welcome to the Homepage of American Atlantis Research!

This website and the research and theories presented here is the work of a non-profit organization which is named American Atlantis Research. This group focuses exclusively on the legend of Atlantis and the studies, work and research related to locating Atlantis. Our main guide is the descriptions given by Plato himself on where Atlantis was located, taking in consideration its size and how he described the people living there as well. The local legends and myths and physical evidence present at the areas of interests are also taken in strong consideration in our work. We are also out in the field researching and trying to get more insights and knowledge about the Atlantean kingdom and its people by visiting the sites we believe to be of Atlantean origin.

Here you will find our own thoughts about Atlantis and its whereabouts, as well as information on the work of other researchers in this field. Even though we firmly believe we know where Atlantis was we also present the theories put forth by other researchers who places Atlantis in other locations, as we feel they can provide important information and clues regarding other lost civilizations and possible Atlantean settlements. It is all presented to you in the form of articles and videos which you will find by browsing through our site by using the navigation menu on top of this site.

As we studied Atlantis and traveled around, we also became aware of something else, that simply had to be added to our work: Pre-Colombian trans-oceanic travels and migration. Indeed there is evidence strongly suggesting the ancients had contact with eachother around the globe thousands of years ago, from trading to slavery business, and probably just from an adventurous spirit as well. Thus this topic will also stand out within our work and the pages you find here.

We hope we may be of inspiration to everyone who visits this site, and hopefully some time soon the riddle of Atlantis and the sea faring ancients will be solved.

Tuesday, August 11, 2009

How it started

So how did i get involved with the study of Atlantis as a real location? And how do ancient pre-colombian trans-oceanic travels fit into the picture?

The story itself started when I was a young man(well even younger than now that is!) and my father told me fantastic tales about this mysterious place. It was the usual stuff that we all have heard, he had books on the subjects and so on, and honestly I believed he himself just considered it a legend and not had a further interest in it.

Well I was wrong. After his death I got hold of one of his old diaries from his own years of traveling around the world, he himself was quite the explorer, indeed in my own view somewhat of an Indiana Jones - he even had the whip and hat. Really!

Nevertheless, I took the diaries and briefly read through them. Some stories here and there about things they had encountered on their journeys in different parts of the world. One story was about a plane they had found sunken in the ocean, another one about a strange huge animal they could not identify but decided to bring along - just to later having to throw it over board because of its rotten smell.

Then I came to the interesting parts. Very interesting I must say. He and some of his men had entered the jungles of Brazil, and due to the sensitivity of this nature I will not reveal the exact location, but there they had stumbled upon marvelous ruins. Deep into the forest with gigantic trees hovering above making it all invisible from air. These ruins consisted of various temples and pyramide-like structures, some poles and obelisk featured objects, and most interestingly they were carved out of a black shiny type of stone.

He himself was sure this was an ancient Atlantean settlement, and obviously quite thrilled over the find. As he did not want anyone else to get to the location and plunder it or otherwise damage it or take the credits for the find, he decided to keep it a secret. He did not have much time to do any research there and had to leave but planned to go back there on a bigger expedition later. Unfortunately he died before he ever got to do that. Luckily however he left the diaries with exact locations of the site.

That is what sparked my true interest in the subject, and I started digging, started researching and studying, and I found other accounts of similar nature telling about similar structures in the nearby area by other explorers and natives.

So obviously I had to study the source of the Atlantis story itself: Platon. Thats where I found many clues that led me to believe the Americas IS Atlantis, which you soon will see why. Other clues from other sources strengthened this idea.

From my own research on this subject I have come to believe the location of Atlantis was actually the Latin-Americas. There are so many things that points in this direction. And Atlantis was not just a city by the way, it was a whole continent, and Plato states so himself. Atlantis, the city, was the capital of Atlantis, the continent.

I believe large parts of Latin-Americas got submerged under water due to some cataclysmic event in the past. The evidence for this is likely seen here:

Map of Gulf of Mexico

(Click photo for larger version)

Look at a map of Latin Americas for starter, if you look at Mexico notice the Gulf of Mexico, and further down the Caribbean ocean. Here it seems very likely to me that there once was dry land that now is gone, filling up the gap that is now between Mexico and rest of South America. And the evidence for this has been found by underwater monuments, artifacts and ruins in the mentioned area.

And if you follow Plato's own description of where Atlantis is located, he says its a place far away in the atlantic ocean, opposite the strait of gibraltar. The Strait of Gibraltar is the strait that divides Spain from Morocco. If you travel through it and thus to the opposite side and continue until you reach another continent you end up in South America.

And while we are at this route, there is also evidence of contact between south america and africa in ancient times. Among things worth mentioning, there has been found traces of cocaine and tobacco in egyptian mummies, and both these are native to south america. Possibly "atlanteans" who escaped from the disaster and ended up in Africa and thus taught the egyptians some of their knowledge about stone technology and construction among other things as well as establishing some trading route with south america. I will present more evidence on this in later posts.

There are many similarities between egyptian pyramids and south american ones, specially when it comes to the masonry and stone technology. And this technology again fits the description of atlantis and their advanced knowledge. Even to this day modern science doesn't know how they built these magnificent structures or how they processed the stones etc.

Here are some aztec earplugs made of stone, less than one mm thick sides:

(Click photo for larger version)

And here is an egyptian vase, made out of solid granite in one piece, and hollowed out:

(Click photo for larger version)

Egyptian "tube" fashioned in a way very similar to the aztec earplugs above:

(Click photo for larger version)

To me it seems both the egyptians and the latin americans had similar knowledge on how to work with stone. Could this be because the egyptians had learned it from the migrating south americans (Atlanteans)?

In addition there were the unknown pre-incan people, who built Machu Picchu among other things. The incas themselves just built upon a pre-existing foundation and structures that were already there - the evidence is clear as the incas structures were not as advanced and of as excellent quality as that of their precedents. And these pre-incan monuments show they had a vast knowledge and very advanced building and construction skills. None have been able to replicate these skills in later generations - though they have tried to imitate. Here is an example of a pre-incan wall:

(Click photo for larger version)

And here is an example of excellent pre-incan wall with sloppy incan extended work on top:

(Click photo for larger version)

If you walk around in places like Machu Picchu and other south american ruins it will become clear that there were some highly advanced civilization that suddenly disappeared and left their buildings and structures unfinished, and then later incas and others came and started build on top of the ruins they found which was already ancient for them as well.

Nobody knows what happened to this pre-incan people, where they went, or why they suddenly disappeared. But it seems quite likely its related to some ancient disaster happening that made the people of those days flee their homes and cities.
If you want to know more about the ancient stone technology I highly recommend you to check this documentary called Technology of the Gods at YouTube 7 parts (CLICK)

If we again go back to Plato and his description of the continent of Atlantis, he said it was "bigger than Libya and Asia put together". So we are talking about a very large continent here, and what other continent could fit this description than South America, when we also take in consideration the other descriptions Plato gave us about this continent? He also describes a huge endles opposite continent, which to me fits quite well with North America - apparently the Atlantians only ruled some in South America (Atlantis was a Kingdom with many settlements situated around Atlantis, the Capital itself, and continents nearby according to Plato)

Places in Latin America also fits the description of Atlantis in more ways, f.ex a researcher named Jim Allen has discovered that Bolivia fits rather perfectly with how Atlantis (the capital city) is described to be a rectangular island high above the sea level - the mountains. Check Jim Allen's theories on this at his website:

http://www.geocities.com/webatlantis/

And the local natives have ancient legends telling about a great flood that raged the planet and swept cities away around 10,000 years ago - which could suit well with the destruction of Atlantis. There are also other similar ancient stories about floods and terrible earthquakes and erupting volcanoes around in South America, check this site for more info on this: http://www.labyrinthina.com/flood.htm - This time table also fits pretty well with Platos descriptions on when Atlantis went under.

There is also the linguistic evidence, if you look at ancient latin american language and how they named many of their places, it fits together with the theory of Atlantis being in Latin Americas. Here are Toltec names of places around in Mexico:
Atlán, Autlán, Mazatlán, Cihuatlán, Cacatlán, Tecaltitlán, Tihuatlán, Atitlán, Zapotlán, Minititlán, Ocotlán, Miahuatlán, Tecaltitlán, Tepatitlán, Tihuatlán, Texiutlán, and the like.

Notice that the Nahuatl Tlán root of these place names is exactly like the Tlan in "Atlantis."
And the pre-conquest Meso-Americans claimed that their primordial founding city was Tollán, which is another variety of Tlan.

Hard evidence suggests that Sanskrit is the father of most world-class languages. If we use Sanskrit to explain the true meaning of "Atlantis," we'll learn that the initial A means "Not; No longer." The final Tis derives from the Sanskrit Desa, Des, or Tes, meaning "Nation." Atlantis = "No-Longer-the-'Tlan'-or-'Tollán'-Nation." When A-Tlan-Tis sank under the ocean named after it, it certainly ceased to exist.

For more in depth linguistic analysis and theories of Mexico being part of Atlantis check this website:
http://www.viewzone.com/atlantis.html

Of course there is a lot more mysteries regarding South America that could possibly relate to an ancient advanced civilization of Atlantis. In addition to all the monuments, pyramids, temples and structures all the way from Mexico and down towards Brazil in South America, we also have strange places like the Nazca lines of Peru that I assume most people are familiar with, and the Ica stones found in an area close to them, which depicts advanced surgery, astronomy and use of telescopes, people together with dinosaurs and more, that cold be the remains of such an advanced and long passed but not forgotten civilization. I do not have the time to tell more about this and other things right now, perhaps some time later.

So, with what I have mentioned above in consideration, doesn't it seem possible that Latin Americas actually was the so called continent of Atlantis, and some of these people who once lived there managed to escape and migrated to Egypt, bringing with them some of their knowledge and thus also being responsible for the greatness of the Egyptian civilizations wonders, and that they later on started a trading route with the Americas thanks the the survivors coming from there? At least I think so myself.

Monday, August 10, 2009

A closer view on the architectural evidence and stone technology

So where is the evidence showing any connection between ancient latin americas and the rest of the world - and what does that have to do with Atlantis even if true?

Well, let me first answer the last: If we assume that the ancient people did have some for now unknown contact with eachother, which I intent to provide evidence for here, then we may also assume that Plato and other people at his time had heard of these ventures. They most likely must have both discussed and wondered about these other continents, some having more knowledge than others, indeed some must of course even have been the ones whom took part of such voyages.

Thus it is easy to understand, that such a event would be written about as well as talked about. And in my opinion that is exactly what happened. Plato described what he had heard about such voyages to other continents, and included the details he knew of, which was enough to pinpoint the location pretty accurately. Of course, as he was a philosopher and teacher, he did add some of his own "touch" to the story, some of his own personal ideas and morality - which would be quite common and still is done when someone is telling a truth, the core of the story is true, it has just been covered with personal thoughts, ideas and moral stories.

So from my understanding he used a real example in his moral teachings to his students, he used a location existing for real - we know the location as Americas, he called it Atlantis. If he made that name up, or if it indeed is a name that was already used about the place which some linguistic evidence support, is hard to say and need more research. The main point is that he used an example of a real place in the world he knew about, using real events as part of his teachings that had occured to that place.

So assuming I am right, this means that Atlanis was part of Americas, as I have been mentioning in previous posts. Thus this again means that some people must have survived whatever cataclysmic event led to the destruction of Atlantis, and brought the knowledge about it back to people such as those of Platons times.

This not only explains how Platon would know about it, but it directly explains the similarities between architechture and religious belief among other things between continents such as Latin-Americas, where I believe Atlantis main Kingdom was situated, and Africa - specifically egypt and areas around.

First of I will present some architectural evidence so unique yet so alike eachother that is is hard to believe there is NOT a common origin here. Lets get started!

REMEMBER ALL PHOTOS CAN BE CLICKED FOR LARGER DETAILED VERSION!

KEYSTONE CUTS IN EGYPT:


KEYSTONE CUTS IN PERU:


NICHES IN EGYPT WITH STRANGE HUMPS ON THE STONES:


NICHES IN PERU WITH STRANGE HUMPS ON THE STONES:


EGYPT AT LEFT, PERU AT RIGHT - EXTRAORDINARY SIMILAR ARHITECTURE


EGYPT AT LEFT , PERU AT RIGHT - EXTRAORDINARY SIMILARITY OF STONE CUTTING AND FITTING


So there you have the first samples - I believe it is not too hard to imagine there seem to be some similarities there, perhaps they used the same architecture? At least to me it looks like some ideas have been shared across the oceans here - thousands of years ago long time before the Vikings or Columbus ever put foot on these shores.

Now back to the interesting "humps" on the stones depicted above, i have noticed that this may seem like the stones ones were soft, a form of concrete, and that these humps may be the hole used to fill in this concrete into perhaps wooden plates used to form these stones, and when looking at inscriptions on several of them and other stones in these areas it seems to have been inscribed into a soft concrete type of matter while it was still wet, and then later dried up and other incscriptions has been carved into the hard stone in addition. This is often visible with inscription that seem to have been carved like a wooden knife in butter, except we are talking about hard stone here (or wet concrete and wooden kinves which makes the butter comparision hold true)

Here is an example of what seem to possibly have been inscriped into once wet stone that later have dried, thus making it easy to make the curves and cirlces and so on. Indeed, it even looks like the artist pushed a bit too hard at the three lines making the upper part a bit fatter, just as it would when doing the same in clay or sand:


Notice this next one, back to Peru now, another close-up of the walls. Now isnt that peculiar stonemansship - up to 7-8 angles a stone, round smooth curves, gentle slopes, all neatly fitted together. Makes me think back to Egypt and the same type of stone work there. And the possibility that these stones were soft when putting in place, thus easily making them fit together and cut and shape as wanted. I mean who needs to make things simple and cut hard stone blocks into nice squares and stack them together when you can put some hours extra in for overtime payment to make amazing work like this?


To make this further interesting, there are scientists whom claim the stones from the egyptian pyramids are indeed concrete, actually an expert on the matter has spoken out on this.

Joseph Davidovits, PhD, specialist in chemistry, geopolymers and ancient cements deserves to be mentioned on that and his discoveries. I quote: "In a microscopic study a human hair was found in a piece of a block taken from one of the pyramids." (SOURCE)

So I think Mr Davidovits deserves a tiny bit more column space here, and thus I will grant it:

In the early Eighties, Joseph Davidovits came up with the radical
but inspired idea that the pyramids blocks were cast using a mixture
of limestone, clay, lime and water. These ingredients reacted and
formed a concrete that he termed geopolymers.
His idea was rejected by the Egyptological community because he
did not have irrefutable scientifific evidence.
Four years ago, A. Ganguly, my graduate student, Dr. G. Hug, a
colleague in France, and I, obtained some stone samples from the
outer and inner casings of the Great Pyramid of Khufu. It took us 3
years, but we fifinally managed to prove beyond a shadow of doubt
that indeed the inner and outer casing stones were NOT natural.
This evidence is technical and is summarized at the end of this
presentation.

DREXEL UNIVERSITY
Current Understanding
Egyptologists maintain that the entirety of the
pyramids are made of carved stones.
J. Davidovits claims that they are made entirely
of cast stones.
In this presentation I will show the pyramids are
actually a hybrid, where the outer casing,
backing blocks - i.e. outer skin - inner casing
and architecture and the top half are probably
cast. I say probably because I do not have
backing block or upper tier samples.

DREXEL UNIVERSITY
Major results of our paper
The inner and outer casing stones of the
Great Pyramid are not natural.
The microstructure is consistent with a
reconstituted limestone where the cementing
phase is either silicon dioxide or a Ca-Mgsilicate.
The starting materials are believed to be
diatomaceous earth, dolomite and lime.
In other words, some of the blocks must have
been cast in place.


This is the information I have from his scientific papers:

Davidovits manufactured an artificial limestone containing 15% of synthetic binder, and submitted it to geologists who, on studying it, suspected nothing [6].
A geologist not informed of geopolymer chemistry will assert with good faith that the stones are natural.

[6] J. Davidovits, La nouvelle histoire des pyramides, éd. J-C Godefroy, Paris, 2004, pp. 57-58 et 72

Basically, the principle is as follows: starting with a mineral
substance such as eroded, disintegrated or naturally disaggregated rock – such as the limestone found everywhere in northern France – we give it a compact structure using a binder, a geological glue that will agglomerate (or re-agglomerate) the mineral particles. The result is a rock that looks perfectly natural: in our case, for example, an extremely solid limestone similar to certain types occurring naturally. A geologist would notice nothing unusual. Only a very close observation of the binder can reveal the synthetic nature of the rock, because the particles
themselves are without question limestone – or granite or whatever you like.

The re-agglomerated stone binder is the result of a geosynthesis (a geopolymer), which creates two natural minerals: limestone and hydrated feldspar (feldspathoids). We understand why the geologists can easily be misled.


QUOTE
The analysis methods used today by geologists are not relevant. To show the artificial nature of the material, they need to work with more powerful methods (analysis by synchrotron, transmission and electronic scan microscopy SEM TEM, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Particle Induced Gamma-Ray Emission, Particle Induced X-Ray Emission, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray Diffraction). These tools are seldom used in this situation. Studies have been made, and all show that the pyramid stones are artificial. [7]

[7] See ref. [5] and [6] for comprehensive bibliographics notes and debates with geologists.


From his publication at: http://www.geopolymer.org/fichiers_pdf/pyramid_chapt1.pdf

Here are some extended list of references in regards of [7] above:
QUOTE
Studies have been made, and all show that the pyramid stones are artificial. [7]
We can quote the following scientific papers:
Microstructural Evidence of Reconstituted Limestone Blocks in the Great Pyramids of Egypt, Barsoum M.W., Ganguly A. and Hug G., J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89[12], 3788-3796, (2006).
* The Enigma of the Construction of the Giza Pyramids Solved?, Scientific British Laboratory, Daresbury, SRS Synchrotron Radiation Source, 2004.
* PIXE, PIGE and NMR study of the masonry of the pyramid of Cheops at Giza, Guy
Demortier, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS and METHODS in PHYSICS RESEARCH B, B
226, 98 - 109 (2004).
* X-Rays Analysis and X-Rays Diffraction of casing stones from the pyramids of Egypt, and the limestone of the associated quarries., Davidovits J., Science in Egyptology; A.R. David ed.; 1986;
Proceedings of the "Science in Egyptology Symposia"; Manchester University Press, UK; pp.511-520.
* Differential thermal analysis (DTA) detection of intra-ceramic geopolymeric setting In archaeological ceramics and mortars., Davidovits J.; Courtois L., 21st Archaeometry Symposium;
Brookhaven Nat. Lab., N.Y.; 1981; Abstracts P. 22.
* How Not to Analyze Pyramid Stone, Morris, M. JOURNAL OF GEOLOGICAL
EDUCATION, VOL. 41, P. 364-369 (1993).
* Comment a-t-on construit les Pyramides: polémique chez les Égyptologues, HISTORIA
Magazine, Paris, No 674, fév. 2003, dossier pp. 54-79 (2003).


Mr Davidovits, whom I have been in contact with, verified himself that similar results where found in Latin-American stones, which again to me indicates a common connection or origin here in regards of this technology.

And before I end the humpy stones tales, I would like to present an idea formed by a colleague of mine, which may demonstrate how these bumps ended up on the stones if we consider they were soft and concrete like when working with them. As you see, the device illustrated would making moving and lifting these easier than if they were flat solid stone alone, as concrete soft enough to squeeze together making these bumps ooze out provides more friction than flat solid stones.

Seems possible to me, and if they did use concrete it also explains why they did not bother remove the bumps after the stones were dry - too much hard work polishing them away once harden so they just let them.

There are really much to say about the ancient stone technology, as another example I will mention this:

In the Cairo museum and in other museums around the world there are examples of stone ware that were found in and around the step pyramid at Saqqarra. Petrie also found pieces of similar stoneware at Giza. There are several special things about these bowls, vases and plates.
They show the unmistakable tool marks of a lathe manufactured item. This can easily be seen in the center of the open bowls or plates where the angle of the cut changes rapidly - leaving a clean, narrow and perfectly circular line made by the tip of the cutting tool.



This will be all for now in this article, there will be more soon specifically about similarities between cultural objects, belief systems, and even biological evidence proving beyond any reasonable doubt that there were contact between the Egyptians and Latin-Americans, as well as most of the rest of the World!

Blessings, and hope you found something of interest!
-Edward Alexander

Thursday, August 10, 2000

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Atlantis (in Greek, Ἀτλαντίς, "daughter of Atlas") is a legendary island first mentioned in Plato's dialogues Timaeus and Critias.

In Plato's account, Atlantis was a naval power lying "in front of the Pillars of Hercules" that conquered many parts of Western Europe and Africa 9,000 years before the time of Solon, or approximately 9600 BC. After a failed attempt to invade Athens, Atlantis sank into the ocean "in a single day and night of misfortune".

Scholars dispute whether and how much Plato's story or account was inspired by older traditions. Some scholars argue Plato drew upon memories of past events such as the Thera eruption or the Trojan War, while others insist that he took inspiration from contemporary events like the destruction of Helike in 373 BC[1] or the failed Athenian invasion of Sicily in 415–413 BC.

The possible existence of a genuine Atlantis was actively discussed throughout classical antiquity, but it was usually rejected and occasionally parodied by later authors. As Alan Cameron states: "It is only in modern times that people have taken the Atlantis story seriously; no one did so in antiquity".[2] While little known during the Middle Ages, the story of Atlantis was rediscovered by Humanists in the Early Modern period. Plato's description inspired the utopian works of several Renaissance writers, like Francis Bacon's "New Atlantis". Atlantis inspires today's literature, from science fiction to comic books to films, its name having become a byword for any and all supposed advanced prehistoric lost civilizations.
Contents
[hide]

* 1 Plato's account
* 2 Reception
o 2.1 Ancient
o 2.2 Modern
+ 2.2.1 In Nazi mysticism
+ 2.2.2 Recent times
* 3 Location hypotheses
o 3.1 In or near the Mediterranean Sea
o 3.2 In the Atlantic Ocean
o 3.3 Other locations
* 4 Art, literature and popular culture
* 5 Notes
* 6 Further reading
o 6.1 Ancient sources
o 6.2 Modern sources
* 7 External links

[edit] Plato's account
A 15th-century Latin translation of Plato's Timaeus

Plato's dialogues Timaeus and Critias, written in 360 BC, contain the earliest references to Atlantis. For unknown reasons, Plato never completed Critias; however, the scholar Benjamin Jowett, among others, argues that Plato originally planned a third dialogue titled Hermocrates. John V. Luce assumes that Plato, after describing the origin of the world and mankind in Timaeus and the allegorical perfect society of ancient Athens and its successful defense against an antagonistic Atlantis in Critias, would have made the strategy of the Greek civilization during their conflict with the Persians a subject of discussion in the Hermocrates. Plato introduced Atlantis in Timaeus:

For it is related in our records how once upon a time your State stayed the course of a mighty host, which, starting from a distant point in the Atlantic ocean, was insolently advancing to attack the whole of Europe, and Asia to boot. For the ocean there was at that time navigable; for in front of the mouth which you Greeks call, as you say, 'the pillars of Heracles,' there lay an island which was larger than Libya and Asia together; and it was possible for the travelers of that time to cross from it to the other islands, and from the islands to the whole of the continent over against them which encompasses that veritable ocean. For all that we have here, lying within the mouth of which we speak, is evidently a haven having a narrow entrance; but that yonder is a real ocean, and the land surrounding it may most rightly be called, in the fullest and truest sense, a continent. Now in this island of Atlantis there existed a confederation of kings, of great and marvelous power, which held sway over all the island, and over many other islands also and parts of the continent.[3]

The four persons appearing in those two dialogues are the politicians Critias and Hermocrates as well as the philosophers Socrates and Timaeus of Locri, although only Critias speaks of Atlantis. While most likely all of these people actually lived, these dialogues, written as if recorded, may have been the invention of Plato. In his works Plato makes extensive use of the Socratic dialogues in order to discuss contrary positions within the context of a supposition.

The Timaeus begins with an introduction, followed by an account of the creations and structure of the universe and ancient civilizations. In the introduction, Socrates muses about the perfect society, described in Plato's Republic (ca. 380 BC), and wonders if he and his guests might recollect a story which exemplifies such a society. Critias mentions an allegedly historical tale that would make the perfect example, and follows by describing Atlantis as is recorded in the Critias. In his account, ancient Athens seems to represent the "perfect society" and Atlantis its opponent, representing the very antithesis of the "perfect" traits described in the Republic. Critias claims that his accounts of ancient Athens and Atlantis stem from a visit to Egypt by the legendary Athenian lawgiver Solon in the 6th century BC. In Egypt, Solon met a priest of Sais, who translated the history of ancient Athens and Atlantis, recorded on papyri in Egyptian hieroglyphs, into Greek. According to Plutarch, Solon met with "Psenophis of Heliopolis, and Sonchis the Saite, the most learned of all the priests";[4] Plutarch refers here to events that would have happened five centuries before he wrote of them.

According to Critias, the Hellenic gods of old divided the land so that each god might own a lot; Poseidon was appropriately, and to his liking, bequeathed the island of Atlantis. The island was larger than Ancient Libya and Asia Minor combined,[5] but it afterwards was sunk by an earthquake and became an impassable mud shoal, inhibiting travel to any part of the ocean. The Egyptians, Plato asserted, described Atlantis as an island comprising mostly mountains in the northern portions and along the shore, and encompassing a great plain of an oblong shape in the south "extending in one direction three thousand stadia [about 555 km; 345 mi], but across the center inland it was two thousand stadia [about 370 km; 230 mi]." Fifty stadia [9 km; 6 mi] from the coast was a mountain that was low on all sides...broke it off all round about[6]... the central island itself was five stades in diameter [about 0.92 km; 0.57 mi].[7]

In Plato's myth, Poseidon fell in love with Cleito, the daughter of Evenor and Leucippe, who bore him five pairs of male twins. The eldest of these, Atlas, was made rightful king of the entire island and the ocean (called the Atlantic Ocean in his honor), and was given the mountain of his birth and the surrounding area as his fiefdom. Atlas's twin Gadeirus, or Eumelus in Greek, was given the extremity of the island towards the Pillars of Heracles.[8] The other four pairs of twins — Ampheres and Evaemon, Mneseus and Autochthon, Elasippus and Mestor, and Azaes and Diaprepes — were also given "rule over many men, and a large territory."

Poseidon carved the mountain where his love dwelt into a palace and enclosed it with three circular moats of increasing width, varying from one to three stadia and separated by rings of land proportional in size. The Atlanteans then built bridges northward from the mountain, making a route to the rest of the island. They dug a great canal to the sea, and alongside the bridges carved tunnels into the rings of rock so that ships could pass into the city around the mountain; they carved docks from the rock walls of the moats. Every passage to the city was guarded by gates and towers, and a wall surrounded each of the city's rings. The walls were constructed of red, white and black rock quarried from the moats, and were covered with brass, tin and the precious metal orichalcum, respectively.[9]

According to Critias, 9,000 years before his lifetime a war took place between those outside the Pillars of Hercules at the Strait of Gibraltar and those who dwelt within them. The Atlanteans had conquered the parts of Libya within the Pillars of Heracles as far as Egypt and the European continent as far as Tyrrhenia, and subjected its people to slavery. The Athenians led an alliance of resistors against the Atlantean empire, and as the alliance disintegrated, prevailed alone against the empire, liberating the occupied lands.

But at a later time there occurred portentous earthquakes and floods, and one grievous day and night befell them, when the whole body of your warriors was swallowed up by the earth, and the island of Atlantis in like manner was swallowed up by the sea and vanished; wherefore also the ocean at that spot has now become impassable and unsearchable, being blocked up by the shoal mud which the island created as it settled down.[10]

[edit] Reception

[edit] Ancient

Other than Plato's Timaeus and Critias there is no primary ancient account of Atlantis, which means every other account on Atlantis relies on Plato in one way or another.

Some ancient writers viewed Atlantis as fiction while others believed it was real.[11] The philosopher Crantor, a student of Plato's student Xenocrates, is often cited as an example of a writer who thought the story to be historical fact. His work, a commentary on Plato's Timaeus, is lost, but Proclus, a Christian historian of the fifth century AD, reports on it.[12] The passage in question has been represented in the modern literature as both claiming that Crantor actually visited Egypt and had conversations with priests and saw hieroglyphs confirming the story, or as learning about them from other visitors to Egypt.[13] Proclus wrote

As for the whole of this account of the Atlanteans, some say that it is unadorned history, such as Crantor, the first commentator on Plato. Crantor also says that Plato's contemporaries used to criticize him jokingly for not being the inventor of his Republic but copying the institutions of the Egyptians. Plato took these critics seriously enough to assign to the Egyptians this story about the Athenians and Atlanteans, so as to make them say that the Athenians really once lived according to that system.

The next sentence is often translated as Crantor adds, that this is testified by the prophets of the Egyptians, who assert that these particulars [which are narrated by Plato] are written on pillars which are still preserved. But in the original, the sentence starts not with the name Crantor but with the word 'He', and whether this referred to Crantor or Plato is the subject of considerable debate. Proponents of both Atlantis as a myth and Atlantis as history have argued that the word should be translated as Crantor[14] Alan Cameron argues that it should be interpreted as 'Plato', and that when Proclus writes we must bear in mind concerning this whole feat of the Athenians, that it is neither a mere myth nor unadorned history, although some take it as history and others as myth... he is treating "Crantor's view as mere personal opinion, nothing more; in fact he first quotes and then dismisses it as representing one of the two unacceptable extremes."[15] Cameron also points out that whether 'he' refers to Plato or Crantor, it does not support statements such as Otto Muck's "Crantor came to Sais and saw there in the temple of Neith the column, completely covered with hieroglyphs, on which the history of Atlantis was recorded. Scholars translated it for him, and he testified that their account fully agreed with Plato's account of Atlantis...." or J.V. Luce's suggestion that Crantor sent "a special enquiry to Egypt" and that he may simply be referring to Plato's own claims.[15]

Another passage from Proclus' commentary on the Timaeus gives a description of the geography of Atlantis: "That an island of such nature and size once existed is evident from what is said by certain authors who investigated the things around the outer sea. For according to them, there were seven islands in that sea in their time, sacred to Persephone, and also three others of enormous size, one of which was sacred to Pluto, another to Ammon, and another one between them to Poseidon, the extent of which was a thousand stadia [200 km]; and the inhabitants of it—they add—preserved the remembrance from their ancestors of the immeasurably large island of Atlantis which had really existed there and which for many ages had reigned over all islands in the Atlantic sea and which itself had like-wise been sacred to Poseidon. Now these things Marcellus has written in his Aethiopica".[16] Marcellus remains unidentified.

Other ancient historians and philosophers believing in the existence of Atlantis were Strabo and Posidonius.[17]

Plato's account of Atlantis may have also inspired parodic imitation: writing only a few decades after the Timaeus and Critias, the historian Theopompus of Chios wrote of a land beyond the ocean known as Meropis. This description was included in Book 8 of his voluminous Philippica, which contains a dialogue between King Midas and Silenus, a companion of Dionysus. Silenus describes the Meropids, a race of men who grow to twice normal size, and inhabit two cities on the island of Meropis (Cos?): Eusebes (Εὐσεβής, "Pious-town") and Machimos (Μάχιμος, "Fighting-town"). He also reports that an army of ten million soldiers crossed the ocean to conquer Hyperborea, but abandoned this proposal when they realized that the Hyperboreans were the luckiest people on earth. Heinz-Günther Nesselrath has argued that these and other details of Silenus' story are meant as imitation and exaggeration of the Atlantis story, for the purpose of exposing Plato's ideas to ridicule.[18]

Zoticus, a Neoplatonist philosopher of the 3rd century AD, wrote an epic poem based on Plato's account of Atlantis.[19]

The 4th century AD historian Ammianus Marcellinus, relying on a lost work by Timagenes, a historian writing in the 1st century BC, writes that the Druids of Gaul said that part of the inhabitants of Gaul had migrated there from distant islands. Some have understood Ammianus's testimony as a claim that at the time of Atlantis's actual sinking into the sea, its inhabitants fled to western Europe; but Ammianus in fact says that “the Drasidae (Druids) recall that a part of the population is indigenous but others also migrated in from islands and lands beyond the Rhine" (Res Gestae 15.9), an indication that the immigrants came to Gaul from the north (Britain, the Netherlands or Germany), not from a theorized location in the Atlantic Ocean to the south-west.[20] Instead, the Celts that dwelled along the ocean were reported to venerate twin gods (Dioscori) that appeared to them coming from that ocean.[21]

A Hebrew treatise on computational astronomy dated to AD 1378/79, alludes to the Atlantis myth in a discussion concerning the determination of zero points for the calculation of longitude:

Some say that they [the inhabited regions] begin at the beginning of the western ocean [the Atlantic] and beyond. For in the earliest times [literally: the first days] there was an island in the middle of the ocean. There were scholars there, who isolated themselves in [the pursuit of] philosophy. In their day, that was the [beginning for measuring] the longitude[s] of the inhabited world. Today, it has become [covered by the?] sea, and it is ten degrees into the sea; and they reckon the beginning of longitude from the beginning of the western sea.[22]

A map showing the supposed extent of the Atlantean Empire. From Ignatius L. Donnelly's Atlantis: the Antediluvian World, 1882.

[edit] Modern

Francis Bacon's 1627 essay The New Atlantis describes a utopian society that he called Bensalem, located off the western coast of America. A character in the narrative gives a history of Atlantis that is similar to Plato's and places Atlantis in America. It is not clear whether Bacon means North or South America. Isaac Newton's 1728 The Chronology of the Ancient Kingdoms Amended studies a variety of mythological links to Atlantis.[23] In the middle and late 19th century, several renowned Mesoamerican scholars, starting with Charles Etienne Brasseur de Bourbourg, and including Edward Herbert Thompson and Augustus Le Plongeon proposed that Atlantis was somehow related to Mayan and Aztec culture. The 1882 publication of Atlantis: the Antediluvian World by Ignatius L. Donnelly stimulated much popular interest in Atlantis. Donnelly took Plato's account of Atlantis seriously and attempted to establish that all known ancient civilizations were descended from its high Neolithic culture.
Ignatius L. Donnelly, American congressman, and writer on Atlantis.

During the late 19th century, ideas about the legendary nature of Atlantis were combined with stories of other lost continents such as Mu and Lemuria. Helena Blavatsky wrote in The Secret Doctrine that the Atlanteans were cultural heroes (contrary to Plato who describes them mainly as a military threat), and are the fourth "Root Race", succeeded by the "Aryan race". Theosophists believe the civilization of Atlantis reached its peak between 1,000,000 and 900,000 years ago. Rudolf Steiner wrote of the cultural evolution of Mu or Atlantis. Edgar Cayce first mentioned Atlantis in 1923,[24] and later suggested that it was originally a continent-sized region extending from the Azores to the Bahamas, holding an ancient, highly evolved civilization which had ships and aircraft powered by a mysterious form of energy crystal. He also predicted that parts of Atlantis would rise in 1968 or 1969. The Bimini Road, a submerged rock formation of large rectangular stones just off North Bimini Island in the Bahamas, was claimed by Robert Ferro and Michael Grumley[25] to be evidence of the lost civilization.

According to Herodotus (c. 430 BC), a Phoenician expedition had circumnavigated Africa at the behest of pharaoh Necho, sailing south down the Red Sea and Indian Ocean and northwards in the Atlantic, re-entering the Mediterranean Sea through the Pillars of Hercules. His description of northwest Africa makes it very clear that he located the Pillars of Hercules precisely where they are located today. Nevertheless, a supposed belief that they had been placed at the Strait of Sicily prior to Eratosthenes, has been cited in some Atlantis theories.
American psychic Edgar Cayce, 1910

[edit] In Nazi mysticism

The concept of Atlantis attracted Nazi theorists. In 1938, SS Officer Heinrich Himmler organized a search in Tibet to find a remnant of the Aryan Atlanteans. According to Julius Evola, writing in 1934,[26] the Atlanteans were Hyperboreans—Nordic supermen who originated on the North pole (see Thule). Similarly, Alfred Rosenberg (The Myth of the Twentieth Century, 1930) spoke of a "Nordic-Atlantean" or "Aryan-Nordic" master race.

[edit] Recent times

As continental drift became more widely accepted during the 1960s, and the increased understanding of plate tectonics demonstrated the impossibility of a lost continent in the geologically recent past, most “Lost Continent” theories of Atlantis began to wane in popularity. Instead, the fictional nature of elements of Plato's story became widely emphasized.

Plato scholar Dr. Julia Annas, Regents Professor of Philosophy at the University of Arizona, has had this to say on the matter:

The continuing industry of discovering Atlantis illustrates the dangers of reading Plato. For he is clearly using what has become a standard device of fiction — stressing the historicity of an event (and the discovery of hitherto unknown authorities) as an indication that what follows is fiction. The idea is that we should use the story to examine our ideas of government and power. We have missed the point if instead of thinking about these issues we go off exploring the sea bed. The continuing misunderstanding of Plato as historian here enables us to see why his distrust of imaginative writing is sometimes justified.[27]

Kenneth Feder points out that Critias's story in the Timaeus provides a major clue. In the dialogue, Critias says, referring to Socrates' hypothetical society:

And when you were speaking yesterday about your city and citizens, the tale which I have just been repeating to you came into my mind, and I remarked with astonishment how, by some mysterious coincidence, you agreed in almost every particular with the narrative of Solon. …[28]

Feder quotes A. E. Taylor, who wrote, "We could not be told much more plainly that the whole narrative of Solon's conversation with the priests and his intention of writing the poem about Atlantis are an invention of Plato's fancy."[29]

[edit] Location hypotheses
Main article: Location hypotheses of Atlantis

Since Donnelly's day, there have been dozens of locations proposed for Atlantis, to the point where the name has become a generic concept, divorced from the specifics of Plato's account. This is reflected in the fact that many proposed sites are not within the Atlantic at all. Few today are scholarly or archaeological hypotheses, while others have been made by psychic or other pseudoscientific means. Many of the proposed sites share some of the characteristics of the Atlantis story (water, catastrophic end, relevant time period), but none has been demonstrated to be a true historical Atlantis.

[edit] In or near the Mediterranean Sea
Satellite image of the islands of Santorini. This location is one of many sites purported to have been the location of Atlantis.

Most of the historically proposed locations are in or near the Mediterranean Sea: islands such as Sardinia, Crete and Santorini, Sicily, Cyprus, and Malta; land-based cities or states such as Troy, Tartessos, and Tantalus (in the province of Manisa), Turkey; and Israel-Sinai or Canaan.[citation needed] The Thera eruption, dated to the 17th or 16th century BC, caused a large tsunami that experts hypothesize devastated the Minoan civilization on the nearby island of Crete, further leading some to believe that this may have been the catastrophe that inspired the story.[30] A. G. Galanopoulos argued that the time scale has been distorted by an error in translation, probably from Egyptian into Greek, which produced "thousands" instead of "hundreds"; this same error would rescale Plato's Kingdom of Atlantis to the size of Crete, while leaving the city the size of the crater on Thera; 900 years before Solon would be the 15th century BC.[31] In the area of the Black Sea the following locations have been proposed: Bosporus and Ancomah (a legendary place near Trabzon). The Sea of Azov was proposed in 2003.[32]

[edit] In the Atlantic Ocean

The location of Atlantis in the Atlantic Ocean has certain appeal given the closely related names. Popular culture often places Atlantis there, perpetuating the original Platonic setting. Several hypotheses place the sunken island in northern Europe, including Sweden (by Olof Rudbeck in Atland, 1672–1702), or in the North Sea. Some have proposed the Celtic Shelf and Andalusia as possible locations, and that there is a link to Ireland.[33] The Canary Islands have also been identified as a possible location, west of the Straits of Gibraltar but in proximity to the Mediterranean Sea. Various islands or island groups in the Atlantic were also identified as possible locations, notably the Azores. However detailed geological studies of the Canary Islands, the Azores, and the ocean bottom surrounding them found a complete lack of any evidence for the catastrophic subsidence of these islands at any time during their existence and a complete lack of any evidence that the ocean bottom surrounding them was ever dry land at any time in the past.[34] The submerged island of Spartel near the Strait of Gibraltar has also been suggested.[35] Some people think that an image from Google Earth represents the Atlantis.[36]

[edit] Other locations

Caribbean locations such as Cuba, the Bahamas, and the Bermuda Triangle[37] have been proposed as sites of Atlantis. Areas in the Pacific and Indian Oceans have also been proposed including Indonesia, Malaysia or both (i.e. Sundaland) and stories of a lost continent off India named "Kumari Kandam" have inspired some to draw parallels to Atlantis, as has the Yonaguni formation of Japan. Antarctica has also been suggested.

[edit] Art, literature and popular culture
Main article: Atlantis in art, literature and popular culture
Illustration by Lloyd K. Townsend

The legend of Atlantis is featured in many books, films, television series, games, songs and other creative works. Recent examples of Atlantis on-screen include the television series Stargate Atlantis and the Disney animated film Atlantis: The Lost Empire. The first Tomb Raider video game features Atlantis as the basis of its plot and the location for its climactic ending. It is also featured prominently and somewhat philosophically in Robert Anton Wilson and Robert Shea's The Illuminatus! Trilogy, and is a staple of New Age philosophies.

[edit] Notes

1. ^ Plato's Timaeus is usually dated 360 BC; it was followed by his Critias.
2. ^ Alan Cameron, Greek Mythography in the Roman World, Oxford University Press (2004) p. 124
3. ^ Timaeus 24e–25a, R. G. Bury translation (Loeb Classical Library).
4. ^ Plutarch, Life of Solon.
5. ^ Atlantis — Britannica Online Encyclopedia
6. ^ Critias 113, Bury translation.
7. ^ Critias 116a, Bury translation.
8. ^ The name is a back-formation from Gades, the Greek name for Cadiz.
9. ^ Critias 116bc
10. ^ Timaeus 25c–d, Bury translation.
11. ^ Nesselrath (2005), pp. 161–171.
12. ^ Timaeus 24a: τὰ γράμματα λαβόντες.
13. ^ Cameron 2002
14. ^ Castleden 2001, p,168
15. ^ a b Cameron 1983
16. ^ Proclus, Commentary on Plato's Timaeus, p. 117.10–30 (=FGrHist 671 F 1), trans. Taylor, Nesselrath).
17. ^ Strabo 2.3.6
18. ^ Nesselrath 1998, pp. 1–8.
19. ^ Porphyry, Life of Plotinus, 7=35.
20. ^ Fitzpatrick-Matthews, Keith. Lost Continents: Atlantis.
21. ^ [1] Bibliotheca historica - Diodorus Siculus 4.56.4: "And the writers even offer proofs of these things, pointing out that the Celts who dwell along the ocean venerate the Dioscori above any of the gods, since they have a tradition handed down from ancient times that these gods appeared among them coming from the ocean. Moreover, the country which skirts the ocean bears, they say, not a few names which are derived from the Argonauts and the Dioscori."
22. ^ Selin, Helaine 2000, Astronomy Across Cultures: The History of Non-Western Astronomy, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, pg 574. ISBN 0-7923-6363-9
23. ^ Isaac Newton (1728). The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended
24. ^ Robinson, Lytle, 1972, Edgar Cayce’s Story of the Origin and Destiny of Man, Berkeley Books, New York, pg 51.
25. ^ Ferro and Grumley, Atlantis: the Autobiography of a Search (New York: Doubleday) 1970.
26. ^ Evola, Revolt Against the Modern World, 1934.
27. ^ J. Annas, Plato: A Very Short Introduction (OUP 2003), p.42 (emphasis not in the original)
28. ^ Timaeus 25e, Jowett translation.
29. ^ Feder, Kenneth L., Frauds, Myths and Mysteries: Science and Pseudoscience in Archaeology, Mayfield Publishing, 1999, p. 164.
30. ^ The wave that destroyed Atlantis Harvey Lilley, BBC News Online, 2007-04-20. Retrieved 2007-04-21.
31. ^ Galanopoulos, Angelos Geōrgiou, and Edward Bacon, Atlantis: The Truth Behind the Legend, Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1969
32. ^ Eagle, Wind, Atlantis Motherland, Maui, HI: Cosmic Vortex, 2003 ISBN 0-9719580-0-9
33. ^ Lovgren, Stefan (2004-08-19). "Atlantis "Evidence" Found in Spain and Ireland". National Geographic. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/08/0819_040819_atlantis.html. Retrieved on 2007-12-05.
34. ^ Location hypotheses of Atlantis
35. ^ http://antiquity.ac.uk/ProjGall/kuhne/ A location for "Atlantis"? Rainer W. Kühne Antiquity Vol 78 No 300 June 2004
36. ^ http://www.nickburcher.com/2009/02/atlantis-google-earth-shows-location-of.html
37. ^ Hanson, Bill. The Atlantis Triangle. 2003.

[edit] Further reading

[edit] Ancient sources

* Plato, Timaeus, translated by Benjamin Jowett at Project Gutenberg; alternative version with commentary.
* Plato, Critias, translated by Benjamin Jowett at Project Gutenberg; alternative version with commentary.

[edit] Modern sources

* Bichler, R (1986). 'Athen besiegt Atlantis. Eine Studie über den Ursprung der Staatsutopie', Canopus, vol. 20, no. 51, pp. 71–88.
* Cameron, Alan (1983). 'Crantor and Posidonius on Atlantis', The Classical Quarterly, New Series, Vol. 33, No. 1 (1983), pp. 81–91
* Cayce, Edgar Evans (1968). Edgar Cayce's Atlantis. ISBN 9780876045121
* Crowley, Aleister - Lost Continent
* De Camp, LS (1954). Lost Continents: The Atlantis Theme in History, Science, and Literature, New York: Gnome Press.
* Castleden, Rodney (2001) Atlantis Destroyed', London:Routledge
* Donnelly, I (1882). Atlantis: The Antediluvian World, New York: Harper & Bros. Retrieved November 6, 2001, from Project Gutenberg.
* Ellis, R (1998). Imaging Atlantis, New York: Knopf. ISBN 0-679-44602-8
* Erlingsson, U (2004). Atlantis from a Geographer's Perspective: Mapping the Fairy Land, Miami: Lindorm. ISBN 0-9755946-0-5
* Flem-Ath R, Wilson C (2001). The Atlantis Blueprint: Unlocking the Ancient Mysteries of a Long-Lost Civilization, Delacorte Press
* Frau, S (2002). Le Colonne d'Ercole: Un'inchiesta, Rome: Nur neon. ISBN 88-900740-0-0
* Gill, C (1976). 'The origin of the Atlantis myth', Trivium, vol. 11, pp. 8–9.
* Gordon, J.S. (2008). 'The Rise and Fall of Atlantis: and the mysterious origins of human civilization', Watkins Publishing, London. ISBN 978-1-905857-24-1
* Görgemanns, H (2000). 'Wahrheit und Fiktion in Platons Atlantis-Erzählung', Hermes, vol. 128, pp. 405–420.
* Griffiths, JP (1985). 'Atlantis and Egypt', Historia, vol. 34, pp. 35f.
* Heidel, WA (1933). 'A suggestion concerning Platon's Atlantis', Daedalus, vol. 68, pp. 189–228.
* Jakovljevic, Ranko (2005) Gvozdena vrata Atlantide, IK Beoknjiga Belgrade. ISBN 86-7694-042-8
* Jakovljevic, Ranko (2008) Atlantida u Srbiji IK Pesic i sinovi Belgrade. ISBN 978-86-7540-091-2
* Jordan, P (1994). The Atlantis Syndrome, Stroud: Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-3518-9
* King, D. (1970). Finding Atlantis: A true story of genius, madness, and an extraordinary quest for a lost world. Harmony Books, New York. ISBN 1-4000-4752-8
* Luce, J V (1982). End of Atlantis: New Light on an Old Legend, Efstathiadis Group: Greece
* Martin, TH [1841] (1981). 'Dissertation sur l'Atlantide', in TH Martin, Études sur le Timée de Platon, Paris: Librairie philosophique J. Vrin, pp. 257–332.
* Morgan, KA (1998). 'Designer history: Plato's Atlantis story and fourth-century ideology', Journal of Hellenic Studies, vol. 118, pp. 101–118.
* Muck, Otto Heinrich, The Secret of Atlantis, Translation by Fred Bradley of Alles über Atlantis (Econ Verlag GmbH, Düsseldorf-Wien, 1976), Times Books, a division of Quadrangle/The New York Times Book Co., Inc., Three Park Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10016, 1978
* Nesselrath, HG (1998). 'Theopomps Meropis und Platon: Nachahmung und Parodie', Göttinger Forum für Altertumswissenschaft, vol. 1, pp. 1–8.
* Nesselrath, HG (2001a). 'Atlantes und Atlantioi: Von Platon zu Dionysios Skytobrachion', Philologus, vol. 145, pp. 34–38.
* Nesselrath, HG (2001b). 'Atlantis auf ägyptischen Stelen? Der Philosoph Krantor als Epigraphiker', Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, vol. 135, pp. 33–35.
* Nesselrath, HG (2002). Platon und die Erfindung von Atlantis, München/Leipzig: KG Saur Verlag. ISBN 3-598-77560-1
* Nesselrath, HG (2005). 'Where the Lord of the Sea Grants Passage to Sailors through the Deep-blue Mere no More: The Greeks and the Western Seas', Greece & Rome, vol. 52, pp. 153–171.
* Phillips, ED (1968). 'Historical Elements in the Myth of Atlantis', Euphrosyne, vol. 2, pp. 3–38
* Ramage, ES (1978). Atlantis: Fact or Fiction?, Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-10482-3
* Settegast, M. (1987). Plato Prehistorian: 10,000 to 5000 B.C. in Myth and Archaeology, Cambridge, MA, Rotenberg Press.
* Spence, L [1926] (2003). The History of Atlantis, Mineola, NY: Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-42710-2
* Stiebing, William H., Jr. (1984). Ancient Astronauts, Cosmic Collisions and Other Popular Theories about Man's Past. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books. ISBN 0-87975-285-8. .
* Szlezák, TA (1993). 'Atlantis und Troia, Platon und Homer: Bemerkungen zum Wahrheitsanspruch des Atlantis-Mythos', Studia Troica, vol. 3, pp. 233–237.
* Vidal-Naquet, P (1986). 'Athens and Atlantis: Structure and Meaning of a Platonic Myth', in P Vidal-Naquet, The Black Hunter, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 263–284. ISBN 0-8018-3251-9
* Wilson, Colin (1996). From Atlantis to the Sphinx ISBN 1-85227-526-X
* Zangger, E (1993). The Flood from Heaven: Deciphering the Atlantis legend, New York: William Morrow and Company. ISBN 0-688-11350-8
* Zhirov, Nikolai F., Atlantis – Atlantology: Basic Problems, Translated from the Russian by David Skvirsky, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1970

[edit] External links
Search Wikimedia Commons Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Atlantis
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* Ancient Atlantis Texts : Plato, Diodorus Siculus, et al.
* Atlantis, at sacred-texts.com

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